SKIN MASSES AND TUMORS

BENIGN SKIN FORMATIONS

Benign Skin Formations: Moles, kists, seborrheic keratosis, papillomas, spots, hemangioms, lipomas, if irritated by causes such as shaving, wearing glasses, preventing from seeing or nutrition, having the risk of becoming dangerous lesions or causing cosmetic problems even not having any health disadvantage, then they can be removed.

Lesions such as actinic keratoses which are risky for transforming into skin cancer later even though they are benign, are important in terms of diagnosing and treatment.

MALIGN SKIN FORMATIONS

Skin cancers are examined under this group. Basal cell cancer and epidermoid cancer and malignant melanoma are the three types which are encountered the most. They are characterized with the wound formation, crusting, bleeding and not recovering of the skin. Basal cell cancers progress slowly but they destruct their location. It is not possible for them to spreat to other parts of the body. Epidermoid cancers progress faster. Unless treated they spread first into the closer parts through the lymph way, then to the far organs. Malignant skin diseases are treated with surgery. It is treated through complete removal along with the solid tissue around the disease area. Contrary to the other cancers, the skin cancers are possible to be detected since the very beginning and diagnosed early, their treatment is almost 100% successful. In the events of the spread, because of the late appeal, the treatment covers the spreading regions as well. If some tissue deficiencies form as a result of the surgical therapy, they are recovered through reconstructive surgical methods.

 MALIGNANT MELANOMA

They are the tumors which are mistaken for the moles or caused by the moles. This is the fastest type among the malignant skin diseases. The cause for the malignant melanomas to be such dangerous is its capacity to spread through all the tumor spreading ways. They can be to the surrounding tissues and through the arteries, veins and lymph ducts to the far organs. As it is not possible to guess where to spread through which means, the surgical treatment is only to its beginning location. The attempts about the spreadings can only be applied after they have shown up. Not all the moles are dangerous. And it is not possible for a good observer not to detect the dangerous ones. They can be counted as the color change, enlargement, irregular edges, crusting, bleeding and not recovering of the wound at the current moles. The moles at the locations with continous irritation should be paid special attention. These are the moles which are at the belt and bra level, sole and palm and at the groins.

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF THE SKIN CANCER?

Exposition to the sun rays or ionized radiation have a very important position among the factors causing the skin cancer, also other elements can be counted as the contact with chemical matters, cigarette, viruses, chronic irritation and inflamation. Also the cigarette has a very important possibility to form the lip cancer.

DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT OF THE SKIN CANCER

Beside the importance of the early diagnosis, the point to lay emphasis on, is to take the subject serious and choosing the appropriate treatment method by the specialist groups. The clinical observations, are of the opinion that the skin cancers are not taken serious enough by the patient and the health staff. On the other hand, when treated through the appropriate technique, the recovery of the skin cancers is about one hundred percent. Thanks to the early diagnosis the treatment costs will decrease, the labour loss will decrese and aesthetic and functiona losses by the treatment will be minimized or not at all. The education of the people and the health professionals through campaigns and media, will make it possible to catch the skin cancer at its early phases. There are three important points to emphasize here;

The auto control of the skin by the person himself

All the doctors to get a skin examination even though the patient has appealed for other causes, warning and directing the risk groups about the skin cancers.

Dermatoscopic examination and pursuit of the suspicious moles.

SYMPTOMS OF THE SKIN CANCER

Any change on the skin can be a warning sign about the cancer.Any wound or bulge on the skin from time to time can be a sign of the skin cancer. That may be accompanied by scratching, flix and crusting. The skin cancer, can show up as little, flat surface, bright and pale changes or can start as irregular top, with dry or flaked, flat, red spot.For the final diagnosis, the tissue sample must be send to the pathological examination.

TREATMENT PLANNING

The aim of the treatment, is to completely remove the cancer tissue or to destruct it in a manner not to reform. That operation must leave no trace on the patient and have no fonction loss. The way of the treatment must be planned separately for each patient. Considering the fact that most of the skin cancers are seen on the face which gets exposed more to the sun ray, it is understood the importance of the treatment planning. The age, skin’s scar capacity, general condition of the patient and placement of the cancer beside his early diseases, size and lymph gland spread, influence the treatent choice.

TREATMENT OF THE SKIN CANCER :

Surgical treatment

Most of the skin cancers can be treated through local anesthesia, short surgeries. By prolonging the surgery for the biopsy (if this operation will leave no serious scar) the diagnosis and treatment can be realized at the same time. There is no extensive biopsy possibility on the face, especially on the locations such as the eyelid, ear and nose. At these points, risky in terms of aesthetic and funcionality, initially only the diagnostic transaction, then the treatment must be planned. On condition depending on its location, at most of the little skin cancers the skin lips are put against each other, the scar can be healed primarily. In cases where it is not possible, the skin flaps prepared by the proches of the scar or if the cancer is at the face, preferably the skin graft of the complete thickness taken fro the back of the ear, is used for healing the scar. In some cases, the repair can be necessary through the flaps prepared from the location away from the cancer. After the surgical removal of the skin cancers of the appropriate location, the thin skin grafts can be enough for repair.

At the surgical treatment of the skin cancers, there are a great variety of options in terms of the cosmetic surgery, the important point is to plan the correct surgery.

CURETTAGE AND ELECTRICITY DESTRUCTION

The cancer region is shaved by a spoon shaped curette, the bleeding is stopped through the electricity current provided by a special device and the cancer cells are killed.At the end a flat, white scar is left. This transaction must be carried out by a dermatologist used to the skin cancers.

TREATMENT THROUGH CRYOSURGERY

Extreme cold can be applied for the treatment of little skin cancers.Liquid nitrogen is applied on the tumor, abnormal cells die. After the thaw of the ice, the dead tissues leave the body. It is possible to require the method to be applied for the second time. This transaction generally doesn’t hurt, there may be ache and swelling at the applied region.A white trace can be after recovery. It is certainly a treatment to be applied by a doctor expert on this subject.

LOCAL CHEMOTHERAPHY

Anti cancer cream or lotion medicines (Fluorouracil, Aldara etc.) can be applied locally on the surface skin cancers just as it is at the actinic ceratose. About the side effects of the treatment, there can be redness, dilution on the treatment point, and color changes on the skin and most of these side effects recover in a few weeks after the end of the treatment. At the late period, rarely some changes can occur on the skin color and structure of the treatment field (dryness, thining, thin blood veils formation on the skin etc.). If the cancer reoccurs at the formerly radiotherapy applied location, some difficulties for the surgical treatment, but thanks to the conteporary cosmetic surgery techniques this poses no problem.